Action #1: Harmonised observations of regional C fluxes

Objectives: At NSEA-PSS, regional data is augmented with data related to carbon cycling, which will advance the regional carbon budget by improving coherent observations of regional C fluxes (air-sea, land-sea, pelagic-benthic, and microbial processes). The first objective will be to harmonise measurements from available platforms in the NSEA-PSS, including applying respective QA/QC. Whenever possible, data will be harmonized with available measurements from the ICOS ERIC. After this is achieved, another objective will be to combine the quality-controlled data with available models and earth observations.

Action Lead and other Partners (with contact persons): Hereon (Voynova, Möller, Brix), NIVA (Frigstad), AWI (Fischer, Bussmann), DELTARES (Blauw), IMR (Wehde)

JS3 Platforms included: FerryBox: Lysbris Seaways (Hereon), Magnolia Seaways (Hereon), FunnyGirl (Hereon), Norrona (NIVA), Connector (NIVA/RWS, projected), Cabled observatory COSYNA Helgoland and Profiling Lander (AWI, Hereon); Additional infrastructure: monitoring by R/V

Other data sources and external partners for implementation: RWS monitoring programme including precise measurements of pCO2, pH, DIC and alkalinity and satellite images and remote sensing algorithms developed. DANUBIUS-RI infrastructures delivering river data

Overall timetable of action: Dec 2020 – Aug 2022.

Description of action: To create carbon budgets for a large shelf sea such as the North Sea a coordinated effort and methodology to capture natural and anthropogenic variability, as well as trends, is needed. This is especially relevant for analysing and closing measurement gaps. Measuring both greenhouse carbon compounds (CH4 and CO2) in the dissolved and atmospheric phase together with basic oceanographic and meteorological data will allow a better understanding of sea-air flux of these compounds and is necessary. The Action will investigate the coherence of current carbonate system parameters in the NSEA-PSS (pCO2, pH, AT, DIC) available from partners involved in NSEA-PSS region (Hereon, NIVA, AWI within JERICO-S3, and other relevant partners). It compares available operational data to data from the ICOS ERIC, from the SOCAT database measurements, as well as from other available measurements (example: Macovei et al., in review). Transfer of knowledge will be facilitated through a collection of available data, information and database locations that will be made publicly available. Active cooperation with other RIs, especially DANUBIUS-RI, will be established and expanded.

Best practices used or developed: Currently we are working on SOPs for automated carbonate system sensors from SOOPs, in relation to best practice for operation, but also data quality control. This is still being explored and developed within the scientific community. Furthermore, best practices of biological imaging with respect to high-resolution observation and quantification are developed in collaboration with partners in WP6.

Data flows: Information about the location of data will be collected. Data managers will be contacted to facilitate cross-referencing and data exchange whenever possible. For instance, databases such as the Hereon’s COSYNA database, AWI’s O2A, and Pangea will be included. Data will be shared with Deltares to allow model validation and ‘smart interpolation’ in time and space. Imaging data will be transferred to EcoTaxa (contribution to WP11) and OBIS via newly developed API (WP6 effort).

Data QC routines: Data (e.g., from SOOPs) that are reported in near real-time are usually QC’d automatically and need to undergo the process of delayed QC before they can be assigned finalized data quality flags. Carbonate system parameters in particular require rigorous and delayed mode QA/QC. Existing processes for QA/QC will be analysed and to the extent possible harmonised.

Data management issues: N/A, but QA/QC procedures will be investigated and alignment between institutions will be initiated, data archiving options explored.

Expected results: Improved understanding of carbon budgets including the sea to air flux of GHG CH4 & CO2, support for identification of gaps.

Users of results: Scientists within the carbon community, scientists and stakeholders within the NSEA PSS, and other regions within JERICO-S3.

Dissemination of results: Results will be disseminated to the scientific community, and to relevant stakeholders through reports within JERICO-S3, scientific publications, and workshops, and international meetings.

Links: WP2 (connection to other RIs, tasks 2.3 and 2.4), WP3 (IRS), WP5 (Harmonization), WP6 (task 6.3.3). DANUBIUS-RI, ICOS ERIC