ETHICS AND SECURITY
AFTER THE ETHICS REVIEW – Summary report,
the additional actions will be undertaken throughout the project :
o Addition of WP12 – Ethics requirements
The ‘ethics requirements’ that the project must comply with are included as deliverables in this work package :
o D12.2 : POPD, Requirement n°1 (IFREMER, M6) :The host institution must confirm that it has appointed a Data Protection Officer (DPO) and the contact details of the DPO are made available to all data subjects involved in the research. For host institutions not required to appoint a DPO under the GDPR a detailed data protection policy for the project must be kept on file.
In case personal data are transferred from the EU to a non-EU country or international organisation, confirmation that such transfers are in accordance with Chapter V of the General Data Protection Regulation 2016/679, must be kept on file.
In case personal data are transferred from a non-EU country to the EU (or another third state), confirmation that such transfers comply with the laws of the country in which the data was collected must be kept on file. Detailed information on the informed consent procedures in regard to data processing must be kept on file.
o D12.3: NEC, Requirement n°3 (IFREMER, M2): Details on the materials which will be imported to/exported from the EU must be kept on file.
o D12.4: EPQ, Requirement n°4 (IFREMER, M6): Further information about the possible harm to the environment caused by the research and the measures that will be taken to mitigate the risks must be kept on file.
Details on the endangered species and/or protected areas involved in the research, and the measures to minimise the impact of the activities must be kept on file
The JERICO-S3 consortium recognises that “A data subject is a living, identifiable individual to whom particular personal data relates. If processing their data, the GDPR requires to meet certain obligations towards them.”
Under the GDPR, any data subject involved with the JERICO Consortium will have the mandatory following rights:
o the right to be informed
o the right of access
o the right to rectification
o the right to erasure
o the right to restrict processing
o the right to data portability
o the right to object to processing
o the rights in relation to automated decision making and profiling
Periodic GDPR compliance assessments will be delivered in the periodic reports under Task 13.8 and as a part of the periodic reporting of WP12-Ethics requirements.
The JERICO-S3 consortium will ensure that the research conducted outside the EU is legal in at least one EU Member State.
· Written confirmation will be asked from the 3 Non-EU countries involved : Norway, Estonia and the Faroe Islands.
· The periodic reports will explain whether any activity outside EU raised ethics issue and the measures taken accordingly, when applicable.
Through careful consideration and consultation of the entire JERICO-S3 Consortium, it has been collectively agreed during the preparation of the proposal that we would not face any major ethics issues as described in the administrative proposal forms. However, being aware of these issues is essential and the JERICO-S3, and Consortium members are aiming at mitigating risks linked to any ethics concerns that may occur in the lifetime of the project. The JERICO-S3 Consortium will be working collectively to ensure the respect of ethical, environmental and best practices guidelines by ensuring an efficient communication, cooperation and transparency. This will an inherent concern for every activity in the project, and will be clearly implemented through task 13.8: Promoting ethics, environmental and safety guidelines within the JERICO-RI (lead by Ifremer – Coordination)
JERICO-S3 includes this task to try and best cover aspects related to ethics throughout the project. This work will be organized taking the following key requirements into consideration:
- Responsible research and innovation. Independence of science in JERICO-S3 partnership with industrial partners and stakeholders;
- Careful and respectful processing of personal data, if and when applicable;
- Free and fully informed consent of citizen science initiatives participants, if and when applicable;
- Environnement preservation during research activities, minimising negative impact on biodiversity and ecosystems with consideration or regional and international law;
- Bioethics research awareness if questions are raised, if and when applicable
The 4 pillars of the RRI framework has been considered in the implementation of the project and is planned to be implemented throughout project and with the support of dedicated actions in the WPs:
Diversity and inclusion will be pursue through engaging with a broad range of stakeholders in WP2, 6 and 10;
Anticipation and reflection is at the heart of WP1 from the scientific and technology point of view. Consequences on technological developments executed, adopted or considered in JERICO-S3 will be critically assessed by the SC.
Openness and transparency: JERICO-S3 is embracing the open science framework through TA, VA and data management (WP6).
Responsiveness and adaptive change: JERICO-S3 will consider the short-term and long-term development of the JERICO-RI, accounting continuously of the changes in its political, economical and scientific landscape. Activities conducted in WP1, 2, 4 and 9 will especially benefit responsivity and adaptation.
A particular attention will be given to maintaining the highest level of independency while developing partnerships with users of the JERICO-RI products and services, and with providers of data, would they be commercial companies, NGOs, associations, semi-public organisations or ministries.
None of the research conducted within JERICO-S3 activities is going to be directly linked to collection and processing of ‘Personal data’ per se, as the core of the JERICO-RI (Research Infrastructure) revolves around marine coastal observation and does not directly involve research on any physical or moral person. Personal data is information relating to an identified or identifiable natural person. An identifiable natural person is one who can be identified, directly or indirectly, in particular by reference to an identifier such as a name, an identification number, location data, an online identifier or to one or more factors specific to the physical, physiological, genetic, mental, economic, cultural or social identity of that natural person (art. 2(a) EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR).
However, experience has shown that personal data may be temporarily involved in the organisation of workshops, meetings, training courses, TNA et VA activities. Each hosting institute will therefore have a strict data protection plan in place. Templates such as the one below will be applied and adapted to each institute organising events and involving personal data collection for subscription, invitation and follow-up dissemination.
Personal data : I hereby understand that the [JERICO-S3 host/organiser] has needed to collect some of my personal information and data for the means of organising the event. It may be used before, during and after the event for on-site security, attendance keeping and follow-up of the event for dissemination purposes. I understand that my personal data will be treated with the utmost respect and care and I am hereby aware that I keep full control over my data and am allowed to ask for any treatment of my data at any time.
Visual media : I hereby agree and grant [JERICO-S3 host/organiser] the right and permission to use photographs and/or video recordings of myself shot during [Workshop/training course/Access on premises] through websites, publications, promotional flyers, educational materials, derivative works, or for any other similar purpose without compensation to me. I prohibit the use of videos and photographs in contexts that compromise my personal dignity and decorum.
2. TYPES OF DATA PROCESSED
Date & Signature
The coordination and WP leaders (Steering Committee)s will collaborate closely JERICO-S3 tasks leaders, partners, citizens and other stakeholders over the duration of the project. The following concrete measures are proposed to mitigate possible negative impacts of the research on individuals or groups:
- Permission: the consent of communities/organizations linked one way or another with JERICO-S3 activities, will always be asked.
- Transparency: the source of funding of the research, its main objectives and the use of the results will be clearly presented;
- Participatory and collaborative research: The project will guarantee and promote the participation of research partners and citizen at every relevant stage of the research. Whenever possible from the academic perspective, the scientific objectives of the project will be submitted to the research partners and adapted to their own investigation needs;
- Informed consent: consent will be asked to carry out interviews and participant observation and a copy of the written transcription of interviews will be given to the interviewees, on demand;
- Privacy and anonymity: will be guaranteed whenever required by interviewees and the latter will have the right to control the contents of writings before their publications.
Answers to specific Ethics questions regarding non-EU countries are provided below. To be noted : this is a precautionary principle looking at unforseen or future developments of research involved within the JERICO-S3 framework.
- In case non-EU countries are involved, do the research related activities undertaken in these countries raise potential ethics issues?
Any research performed in the frame of JERICO-S3 will comply with national and EU (where appropriate) ethical standards, and JERICO-S3 will ensure that the activities are allowed not only in the non-EU country but also in at least one Member State.
- Is it planned to use international local resources (e.g. animal and/or human tissue samples, genetic material, live animals, human remains, materials of historical value, endangered fauna or flora samples, etc.)?
Research carried out in JERICO-S3 expeditions may collect water samples, sediment samples and potentially biological material. International best practice and compliance with all relevant legislation (e.g. OSPAR) will be ensured. OSPAR is the mechanism through which 15 Governments & the EU cooperate to protect the marine environment of the North-East Atlantic. OSPAR started in 1972 with the Oslo Convention against dumping and was broadened to cover land-based sources of marine pollution and the offshore industry by the Paris Convention of 1974. These two conventions were unified, updated and extended through the 1992 OSPAR Convention. The new annex on biodiversity and ecosystems was adopted in 1998 to cover non-polluting human activities that can adversely affect the sea. The fifteen Governments are Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Iceland, Ireland, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.
Environment and biodiversity
All organisations providing access to coastal observatories and/or research vessels in the frame of JERICO-S3 have stringent environmental protection rules and standards in place in order not to cause any harm to marine habitats and marine research will be conducted in accordance with the Code of Conduct for Responsible Marine Research in the Deep Seas and High Seas of the OSPAR Maritime Area 9. As the IRS and the PSS of the project include several protected areas (see Figure XXX), JERICO-S3 may involve collection of samples dealing with endangered fauna and/or flora and/or protected areas. All precautions will be taken and precautionary measures will be put in place : targeted sampling, minimal disturbance to the environment. Eventually, the vision of the JERICO-RI to help protect that environment and biodiversity and to provide a powerful and structured European Research Infrastructure dedicated to observe and monitor the complex marine coastal seas with capabilities to provide services for the delivery of high quality environmental data, access to solutions and facilities as services for researchers and users of the coastal marine domain, create product prototypes for EU marine core services and users of the coastal domain, support excellence in marine coastal research to better answer societal and policy needs.
Europe’s seas have historically been perceived as four separate region: the Baltic Sea, the North-east Atlantic Ocean, the Mediterranean Sea and the Black Sea. Each regional sea is unique in its physical characteristics and ecosystem components, although the challenges they face in terms of pressures and impacts from human activities remain fairly similar. In recognition of the cross-boundary nature of these challenges, the countries sharing each regional sea have set up RSCs (Regional Seas Convention) to help combat the effects of pollution and other impacts from human activities, and to protect marine biodiversity. This includes the development of MPA networks. The JERICO-S3 Consortium is aware of these areas and will, if appropriate, treat them following Best Practices recommendations and the law under international Conventions as follows :
The Baltic Sea — HELCOM
The RSC in the Baltic Sea is HELCOM, an inter- governmental organisation of nine Baltic coastal countries and the EU, signed in 1974. It was later revised in 1992 to reflect developments in international environmental and maritime law. Its main objective is to protect the marine environment from all sources of pollution.
The North-East Atlantic Ocean — OSPAR
In the North-east Atlantic Ocean, the RSC is the OSPAR Convention. It covers the Kattegat area, which is also covered by HELCOM. OSPAR is an intergovernmental organisation comprising 15 countries and the EU, who cooperate to protect the marine environment. This includes the non-Atlantic countries Finland, Luxembourg and Switzerland, as their rivers flow into the Atlantic Ocean. The Oslo Convention (i.e. the Convention for the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping from Ships and Aircraft) was established in 1972; protection was broadened in 1974 to cover land-based sources of pollution and offshore industry (except fisheries) via the Paris Convention (i.e. the Convention for the Prevention of Marine Pollution from Land-Based Sources). In 1992, these two conventions were merged into the Oslo-Paris (OSPAR) Convention, and updated to reflect political and environmental developments. In 1998, this was further extended to include an annex on biodiversity and ecosystems to cover human activities that can adversely affect the sea.
The Mediterranean Sea — Barcelona Convention
In the Mediterranean Sea, the Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment and the Coastal Region of the Mediterranean (Barcelona Convention) set a Protocol Concerning Specially Protected Areas and Biological Diversity in the Mediterranean (SPA/BD Protocol), which calls upon countries to establish MPAs. This includes the ongoing development of a specific region-wide network of SPAMIs. The SPAMI network is the principal existing regional network acting in EU and non-EU countries. SPAMIs may be set up in marine areas subject to parties’ jurisdiction, and in areas situated partly or wholly on the high sea. Special criteria are applied to SPAMIs containing specific Mediterranean habitats of conservation importance and of endangered species.
The Black Sea — Bucharest Convention
The Black Sea spans 6 countries and covers 434 000 km2, 55 000 km2 of which are under the jurisdiction of EU Member States. The Convention on the Protection of the Black Sea against Pollution (also known as the Bucharest Convention) aims to preserve representative types of coastal and marine ecosystems, wetlands and other habitats. Its actions include the creation of MPAs.
Health and safety
The health and safety of participants in activities, access and eventual cruises is a priority for JERICO-S3 members. Participants and users will be trained before research activities with a formal safety orientation for all science party members. Participation in the training will be mandatory. Areas to be covered should include as a minimum: stowage and proper donning of first aid kits and, where applicable, lifejackets, type and location of lifesaving devices, and any other instructions relating to safety for the particular vessel. Additionally, it may be required to obtain a Personal Survival training STCW 95 (a 1-day course on actions to be taken by persons for self-protection in emergency situations, survival at sea and deployment of safety equipment) prior to board some of the vessels to be used for JERICO-S3 research.
Please indicate if your project will involve:
- Activities or results raising security issues: NO
- EU-classified information’ as background or results: NO